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Rationale Paper

Lora Evanouski

April 13, 2011

Introduction

I entered into the world of educational technology after many years of being separated from the educational community. I was in search of a program that would afford me the convenience of working full time and yet being able to attend according to a flexible schedule. I continued my education throughout my life in various courses at various educational institutions, but was never satisfied. I could not decide on a specific focus for my master's level work. I enjoyed using technology but had never used technology to develop teaching or training materials. The first semester I just tested the waters and only took the entry class, EdTech 501. But, alas I was hooked from then on. Finally, I entered into the master of educational technology program after a thorough search and intense interest in using technology to help teach and train employees. This was the best choice I have made because the M.E.T. program available through Boise State University has allowed me to grow both personally and professionally.

This paper and the artifacts selected represent the body of work through my tenure in the M.E.T. program. In addition, this paper accurately represents that I fulfilled the required AECT standards and that I am competent, professional, and proficient in the educational technology field. Furthermore, this paper is organized chronologically by AECT standards which include links to the specific AECT standards achieved.

Standard 1: Design

1.1 Instructional Design

Instructional Systems Design is the "systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, information resources, and evaluation" (Smith & Ragan, 2005, p. 4). I developed a unit on Picasa for my Instructional Design Project #1. Because I had used Picasa in my personal use I was familiar with the product but not the process of front end analysis. This utilization of front end analysis in my creation of Picasa has deepened my awareness of the instructional design process and what proper instructional design materials should contain. This class also defined what further creations should contain based upon the principles I learned through the design materials I created.

Instructional Systems Design strives to ensure that the learning is maximized, efficient, effective, and appealing (Davidson-Shivers & Rasmussen, 2006). Drawing upon knowledge gained in my EdTech 503 class, I developed a unit on Ecological Instruction for EdTech 506. The organizational process that I had only scratched the surface in EdTech 503 was further deepened in the development of this project. In this course I followed the process of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating following Gagne's 5 major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills (discriminations, concrete concepts, defined concepts, rules, higher order rules), cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes (Smith & Ragan, 2005). This course design further deepened my awareness of instructional design. I created a bird behavior lesson plan to fulfill this requirement. As a result of completing these projects in EdTech 503 and 506 my understanding and approach to learning has moved into a more learner centered, hands on approach.

1.2 Message Design

EdTech 506 requires the manipulation of the physical form of the message. Throughout the development of each module in the unit, message design was a constant theme. According to Clark and Lyons, "good instructional methods promote the processes that mediate the transformation of environmental information into new knowledge and skills in long-term memory" (Clark & Lyons, 2004, p. 25). By using relevant images, corresponding text and audio, deeper learning can be stimulated in the learner. The facts visual incorporates relevant visuals, supporting written text, and accompanying audio in the manner of a slide show. This method was used in order to support the learning process (facts) and decrease cognitive load.

EdTech 502 the Internet of the Educators class played a strong part in defining message design through an online message system. EdTech 502 Virtual Field Trip used the museums of Chicago to deliver the message. In an effort to maximize learning I used relevant images and self-check questions to check learning. This method of using message design also stimulates learner interest, promotes transfer of learning, and reduces cognitive load.

1.3 Instructional Strategies

In e-learning instructional strategies, "the display design is inextricably linked to the instructional strategy" (Clark & Lyons, 2004, p. 355). In EdTech 502 I developed a WebQuest about the Wolves of Yellowstone. Wolves within the Pacific Northwest often stir strong emotions and passions. My WebQuest is an inquiry based system of learning allowing the learner to use 21st century skills while promoting deeper thinking about the impacts of decisions made by elected officials. Using technology to create an open, honest dialogue of how to approach explosive issues and promote using higher order thinking skills can benefit all 21st century learners. According to Dawley (2007), in order to make instructional strategies more effective they must contain elements such as feedback, interaction, and promote self-learning.

Furthermore, in my EdTech 513 Multimedia class I was introduced to using audio and visuals to generate interest and promote deeper learning. Instructional strategies must be considered in order to make a viable learning unit. I created a tutorial screencast on how to use Google Earth in a classroom. This is called a worked example. The goal of worked examples is to scaffold the learner through the exercise gradually allowing the learner to build their own skills through this procedure process resulting in faster and better learning (Clark & Mayer, 2008). As a result of producing this screencast, I have learned how to create effective tutorials that I can use to help my future students or possibly train employees.

1.4 Learner Characteristics

Selecting the correct mode of delivery for your intended learners is an important choice. The learner characteristics must be considered. When developing a multimedia presentation for your learner several factors must be taken into account. For instance I spoke about the Modality Principle which refers to learners learning better from audio and visual rather than on-screen text. If violations occur such as page after page of text cognitive overload in the visual processing will occur. According to Clark and Mayer (2008), by separating your intended learning into two distinct channels (audio and visual) learners can learn more deeply.

Because I have worked in the training of employees in various situations, I became fascinated with using technology to train from a distance thereby reducing cost to employers. But first I was to rediscover my personal learning, which was grounded in the work of Albert Bandura's Social Learning Theory. I discovered that Albert Bandura believes that behaviorism and cognitivism should be combined when considering learning contrary to popular belief that he is a behaviorist (Taylor & Mackenney, 2008). In addition by using imitation, modeling, and observation I can guide my future learners. I have done this approach over the years but never through a virtual medium. I began to investigate how to approach training individuals through an online medium. For my EdTech 504 research paper,Training Employees in a 3-D Virtual Environment I wanted to explore the impact virtual training can have upon employees. The modern workplace requires skills such as teamwork, collaboration, and thinking outside the box to solve complex problems. "A VE can provide a situated learning environment in which the students can exercise the necessary skills, experience their conditions, and learn to select the correct strategy" (Romano & Brna, 2001, p. 271). Entering into the virtual world offers teamwork, collaboration, and learner centered approaches to training. Because of this class I approach my learning and training with open eyes and mind. I have become acutely aware of learner characteristics and that all people differ in these characteristics.

Standard 2: Development

2.1 Print Technologies

To exemplify this artifact in EdTech 506 I was asked to build a visual process. I created a visual for "How to Search the Internet?". This process can be viewed online or printed mechanically for extra help for the learner while viewing the process. Taking into consideration learner characteristics and learning styles, the process of printing allows the learner to proceed through the learning situation at their own pace while simultaneously allowing the extra benefit of having a hard copy.

2.2 Audiovisual Technologies

One of my first tutorials I created was for EdTech 522. This tutorial on how to use Picasa employed using audio and visual technologies. I discovered new technology using Camtasia for the first time. Through the use of Camtasia I learned very important aspects when editing and presenting myself via technology. For instance through peer feedback, I learned that I need proper lighting and backlighting because of wearing glasses. The glare if not accounted for can be distracting. I also learned how to select relevant images then import them into my program in a logical order. The contiguity principle recommends that "the spoken word and corresponding graphic should be presented at the same time" (Clark & Mayer, 2008, p. 86). Keeping images and audio in sync will decrease cognitive load allowing the viewer to focus on the intended learning. A tutorial is a powerful tool that a teacher can use to help the student achieve far transfer learning. I intend to use the contiguity principle throughout my multimedia presentations now and in the future.

Multimedia became one of my favorite classes in the entire program. I enjoyed making and editing stories that can be used to impart information in an engaging manner. In my Digital Storytelling artifact I choose to tell my tale of flying into the Frank Church Wilderness. I learned how to use new technology through a program called ProShow Gold. This program allowed me to incorporate stunning visual images with a multilayered sound track. Once again because of my knowledge of the Contiguity Principle, I synchronized my visuals to my audio while having background music that was suited to the journey. By utilizing technology my story became alive and engaging. I have already used this technique to create a digital family story (I gave as Christmas presents this past year!) and also a multimedia slideshow of Boise State University for the GSA. I will continue to use this method of relaying information, as I find it fun, engaging, and it allows me to make good use of my acquired technology skills.

2.3 Computer-Based Technologies

Using computer-based technologies has allowed me to look at new modes of delivery for instruction. In my first artifact for this standard I choose EdTech 502 Jigsaw. I used the model developed my Elliot Aronson in 1970. This type of learning promotes cooperative learning while improving student motivation (Aronson, 2011). Each member must participate within his or her own group and work together (also becoming an expert!) then report on what was learned. This project opened new learning avenues I had not tested before. I tested using different internet access points in which to engage the learner. Because of the use of the internet and the computer I must also consider employing learning theories and online course design.

My second artifact is again in EdTech 502, m-learning. With the new wave of technology reaching into our phones I developed a lesson on m-Learning Chicago. The delivery system in which our technology comes to us is increasingly important. Instructional strategies and visual design must be considered when using this technology. Mobile technology is increasingly important in our school, business, and personal communications. Mobile technology can inform and direct while reaching across differing technologies while engaging and creating great interest for learners on the go. This artifact has taught me the value of using all technologies available in order to reach my learners.

2.4 Integrated Technologies

In my EdTech 512 course utilized Moodle as a delivery mechanism for my course. The course was an instruction on Basic Photography fully integrated online through Moodle. In using the Moodle LMS, I developed a highly interactive set of lessons using multimedia concepts, intermixed with tutorial videos, stimulating text selections, a peer review process, and a culminating final project creation. I made all these selections in order to impact learning styles and promote higher order thinking skills. In the creation of this course I learned valuable lessons on integrating a lesson into the digital format. Using all available tools throughout the entire course (especially audio synched with visuals) can be time consuming at the beginning but will be worth making a dynamic, inspired course in the end.

Likewise, I created a fully functional lesson incorporating far transfer/memory load techniques on ecological behavior for my EdTech 506 course. I integrated audio and visual into this project in order to increase far transfer and decrease memory load. I used representational visuals in order to achieve maximum impact and combined the visuals with audio to decrease cognitive load (Clark & Lyons, 2004). I enjoyed making course content utilizing my creativity but also drawing upon proven multimedia learning techniques such as contiguity, modality, and redundancy. I will employ these skills in my future endeavors in teaching and training.

Standard 3: Utilization

3.1 Media Utilization

The appropriate choice of media to encourage transfer of learning in an online class is critical when considering online development. In my EdTech 513 class I used multimedia screencasting to create an interactive tutorial and show the possibilities of using Google Earth in the Classroom. This project allowed me to layer audio tracks while synching it to specific images, edit and produce using Camtasia, and upload to YouTube where it can be viewed by the public. Because it is open to the public I already have a viewing public! I used screen captures and copyright free images from Google images. Using all the technology I not only sharpened my technology skills but also opened insight into using tutorials in my future endeavors. YouTube is a great tool in producing a video, slide show, or tutorial. If YouTube should ever not be available because of privacy concerns in a school I can still embed the code into a web site, wiki, or blog.

Furthermore for a lesson on concepts in EdTech 506, I created an insect adaptation web site that utilized Fireworks, audio and a self-check quiz. This site was intended for additional support to a lesson plan on concepts. Because of the use of Fireworks, audio, and Dreamweaver I widened my technology skills. Following the guidelines as presented by Clark and Lyons, I created 2 examples with a succinct definition to help build an effective mental model (Clark & Lyons, 2004). Moreover, this demonstration of using the media in the transmission of information leads to long term information transfer to learners which will decrease cognitive load because of using representational visuals, accompanying audio, and a self-check quiz.

3.2 Diffusion of Innovations

Because of technology being used ineffectively in training situations and the lack of training given to those trainers, I explored the subject of using the virtual environment to train employees. My EdTech 504 class research paper, Training Employees in a 3-D Virtual Environment, navigated this subject. Through the exposure of the many different educational philosophies and theories expounded to me in EdTech 504, I have begun to shape my own style and approach to learning based upon sound research grounded in social cognitivism, constructivism, and connectivism.  In addition, I wrote this research paper to suggest opportunities to achieve maximum benefit by integrating technology into companies already utilizing technology within their training programs.  Solutions to training program inconsistencies through technology can create viable and realistic training models that will benefit the employers as well as the employees through cost, time, and effort.  Lastly, I wrote about this subject in hopes of gaining more support for the integration of technology for training in the work place.

My next artifact I present is EdTech 597 Social Network Learning Blog. I entered this class not knowing what to expect and wanted to further my understanding of social technologies and how they can be utilized in a learning situation. I adapted a blog into a PLN about social network learning and multimedia. I constructed various examples that can be used for learning situations and also to lead by example. I wanted to show the teachers how to use the tools and how the tools can benefit them in their everyday life. In completing this project, I learned valuable insights into integrating social media into a learning format. I plan to continue using social media as a learning venue.

My goal in the future is to produce or improve learning in any venue. Both of these learning situations has allowed me to reflect on learning theories and the proper use in a classroom or training situation. I have also learned that not one learning theory should be applied in all situations because not all situations are the same.

3.3 Implementation and Institutionalization

The Instructional Design Project completed for EdTech 503 which was the development of a course on using Picasa relied heavily upon learner and context analysis in order to determine proper implementation and institutionalization. My project centered on the model of Cagne's 9 events (Smith & Ragan, 2005). I chose this model of inquiry based learning because the model allows for a high saturation of outcomes based on the behaviors resulting from the training thus long term transfer learning will occur. Important considerations must be made in order to engage and stimulate not only the learner but also the person conducting the learning or the teacher. Because I had built this unit from the ground up, I have learned that instructional design is complex and must take into account views from many different aspects. This project also reflected the amount of time that is necessary to properly implement and institutionalize a project.

In EdTech 502 I developed a web page concerning accessibility on the web. This artifact enlightened me to issues I had not dealt with or given much thought too. This web page was designed for adult learners and teachers. This web page can be implemented and institutionalized in any learning or training situation. In addition this web page demonstrates through a plan that technology can be used by all throughout the school district or corporate company with proper implementation and institutionalization.

3.4 Policies and Regulations

Because I had not learned through online courses previous to joining the M.E.T. program at Boise State I was naïve to policies and regulations regarding its use. After completing each project I understand the value of having strict policies and regulations. Two projects completed for EdTech 502 about policies and regulations were Netiquette and Copyright Scavenger Hunt. Netiquette demonstrates the proper use in online communication. This web site lays the proper groundwork for successful online classroom communication. In the copyright Scavenger Hunt I learned what is and is not public domain. Because of ease of access to information this web site is important to me and will be used in the future. Through these assignments I have learned that hard work and effort made by an individual (whether it is a song, art, or a fabulous web site) must be accounted for and credited. Lastly, because technology is increasingly used in schools these new norms and rules must be accounted for.

Standard 4: Management

4.1 Project Management

Project management was required throughout my entire tenure at Boise State University. As I made my way through the program I had to plan, monitor, and control the development of all my projects. I found these newly acquired skills an extremely valuable part of the program. As I venture towards graduation and utilization of these skills this is one expertise that will be most important to me. The two main projects I demonstrate competency in project management are for EdTech 505 Evaluation Report for Golf Galaxy and the course I designed in EdTech 512 Basic Digital Photography. Both projects comprised of the planning, monitoring, and controlling instructional design projects.

The evaluation project inspired me to look beyond just what was a given in corporate America standards for training. I had the opportunity to look inside a real life training system, hands on and evaluate it. I enjoyed the opportunity to apply what I had learned in a real situation. I fully understand that I can make a difference in a training system with my valuable learned experiences in the M.E.T. program.

The project completed for EdTech 512, Basic Digital Photography, offered an entire insight to developing and implementing an online course. At first this task seemed overwhelming but I am glad to have participated in the course. I learned many valuable experiences such as considering the stakeholders as well as the learners, or what bandwidth and technology is available. I could also follow my peers and watch their course development which I found an incredible learning experience. Furthermore, I had the advantage of being able to experiment with a new LMS, Moodle.

4.2 Resource Management

Resource management is a fundamental building block to any business prospective. Documenting, budgeting, and time management skills are necessary in today's financial climate. I demonstrated this skill in my fictitious evaluation proposal Far West Laboratories in EdTech 505. In the assignment I was to be an independent contractor where the over-arching goal was to provide feedback to effectiveness of the implemented program. I laid out a sound evaluation technique that sought answers to specific questions, developed a realistic time line, and reflected an accurate budget in order to accomplish the job. This assignment made me keenly aware of how to budget and pertinent questions to ask when considering an evaluation.

Resource management is a means by which obtaining and utilizing the appropriate technological equipment, facilities, personnel, and materials needed to do the work that will allow the course to be successful. In my EdTech 512 course, I demonstrated more detailed resource management skills. I developed a course on Basic Digital Photography from the ground up, which entails being consistently aware of a resource management (personnel, facilities, materials, equipment, and budgets) and a practical time line for the course. During the concurrent design planning stage, I became keenly aware of organization of time, budgets, documentation, and planning that is needed for an online course to be successful. In the implementation stage all aspects of management of the course are considered. This class is a valuable learning experience as applied to learning proper resource management. The complexities of creating and then implementing a course are experiences I will carry with me into my future endeavors.

4.3 Delivery System Management

EdTech 512 is is called Online Course Design. Online course design is an instructional approach to the development of online courses that are meant to be viable and effective for the learner as well as the creator of the course. Because the course allows you to design your course from the ground up you get to choose the manner of delivery system of the course. I demonstrated mastery of this skill by implementing my course into Moodle as well as a web site in case of Moodle malfunction. In the analysis stage this course also taught me to look at the hardware and software that is available to your students as well as through the school. Planning and controlling how to present material in the best and most effective manner is an invaluable learning experience that I will take with me to future vocations.

In my social network learning class I developed a blog called Social Network and Multimedia Learning that would showcase my work as well as deliver my message. I choose to use a Wordpress account because of 2 reasons. I am the marketing officer for the EdTech GSA and that is our method of delivery to our members. I wanted to investigate using this medium to further my knowledge of deployment in hopes of finding new strategies in this medium. The other reason I chose to use Wordpress were because of the ease of use, the free account, and exposure of my blog. Not only did I enjoy learning and developing my blog to craft the message to my viewers but also learning about the back end features that you can view. I found the statistics page and ease of navigation very useful and an integral part of my learning. I would recommend to all educators and students to utilize a Wordpress account in order to manage the delivery of their blogs!

4.4 Information Management

Information management is an extremely important part of an educator's job. One question I have struggled with throughout my tenure in the M.E.T. program is how to manage all the information? In my EdTech 597 Social Network Learning course I chose to use a Wordpress account in order to manage my information. I have intermediate skills using various blogs and wikis through the M.E.T. program and I wanted to find a blog that I could navigate and possibly add pages, embed examples, and expanded when needed for other projects I complete. Wordpress is surprisingly simple and effective to use. The ease of incorporating a YouTube video is a wonderful feature that adds interest and excitement to your information being expressed. I can continue to construct my knowledge and also aid in the construction of knowledge to others that visit my blog (Dawley, 2007). I also learned how to connect various social media together which allows maximum exposure of my work. This learning process is valuable in that I can cross connect all my blogs together along with my YouTube channel. I understand and appreciate information management a great deal because of taking EdTech 597. I will continue to employ techniques of connecting across social media in the future.

Standard 5: Evaluation

5.1 Problem Analysis

When I entered the M.E.T. program I began with one class EdTech 501. I was unsure of the program and did not want to overwhelm myself with school. I instantly became fascinated with using technology in schools or training situations. For my final synthesis paper I wrote about the Impact of Technology in Education. I explored positive effects on (1) academic performance, (2) meaningful learning, (3) learning disabilities, and lastly applications of technology. By analyzing the various impacts of technology, I am acutely aware of using technology in teaching and learning. I am also aware of the dangers of pursuing technology when a simple technique may be needed or wanted.

"The results of evaluation actively provide you with data about the value of the activities, the effectiveness of the process, and the impact upon the employees and the organization" (Boulmetis & and Dutwin, 2005, p. 24). The purpose of EdTech 505 is to implement an evaluation of a real life scenario measuring specific criteria such as effectiveness and quality of the program. In this course the collection, analyzing and interpreting of data were key strategies to determine if the program was effective. I chose to evaluate an online training system (WISE) designed to increase sales while simultaneously building knowledge within the employee. Because I am a part time employee, gathering surveys from other employees posed a small problem. I must consider meeting the needs of the participants as a determining factor. Through surveys in which not all participants wanted to take part in or were even remotely excited to take, I found that being close to them and having personal relationships with the employees makes a difference. The experience of writing the report, making and giving surveys, collecting data, then interpreting the data, and writing the detailed report has exposed me to a valuable learning encounter in conducting a proper evaluation.

5.2 Criterion-Referenced Measurement

A criterion-referenced measurement means did the learner master the intended objectives? The measurement can be a rubric with specific goals to be achieved. The rubric is an assessment of what the learner has learned compared to the stated objectives. It is also demonstrating that the teacher or trainer is adhering to a guideline of those objectives. In my EdTech 502 class I created and implemented a detailed rubric for the WebQuest. I have learned the value of having a detailed rubric: it ensures that standards as well as objectives are being met.

In my evaluation report for EdTech 505 I used criterion-referenced measurement in another manner. I developed a series of surveys and interviews then compared them in relation to sales before training and after training had taken place. Using criterion-referenced measurements allowed me to make determinations on the impact of the online training modules. This experience in comparisons was a good learning experience. I now understand how companies, papers or any other criterion-referenced measurement is done and why it is done. I also understand the magnitude of having proper standards when measuring any statistic.

5.3 Formative and Summative Evaluation

Formative and summative evaluations are 2 distinct types of evaluation. Formative evaluation is when you monitor the program and make changes necessary to that program based upon the progress towards the intended goals; whereas summative evaluation is the overall assessment of the program effectiveness (Boulmetis & and Dutwin, 2005). In my EdTech 512 course I laid out specific detail oriented plans concerning formative and summative evaluations. The evaluation planning stage allowed me an in-depth look into how to ensure an online course is appealing, effective, and efficient. I utilized subject matter experts, instructional design experts, as well as collecting data from the learner participating in the course. In addition I used one-to-one tryout, small-group tryout, and field trials. The formative stage is necessary to improve your course. I have learned through this course the value of input throughout the formative stages and plan to utilize the thoroughness this course has enlightened me to. In contrast, the summative stage allowed me to formulate a strategy in order to collect and analyze data to determine learner mastery of instructional materials. Because of taking this course I have realized the absolute importance of having a plan to document changes as well as data collection.

In my EdTech 597 class I made a reflection video based upon formative and summative evaluation. I used formative evaluation based upon peer reviews. I made necessary changes to further develop my blog. I used summative evaluation in determining adequacy of my creation and decided to launch it to the public. The use of peer reviews in the formative stage is absolutely necessary in order to attain a better developed project. I value the insights of my peers and recommend using peer review to all online teachers.

5.4 Long-Range Planning

My evaluation report for EdTech 505 laid out a plan for the continued implementation of the online training system based upon evidence gathered in the report. The discussion I presented at the end of the report focuses on positive impacts but also allows for an honest and realistic look at behaviors of why a store could fail at its objective (increasing its profits). In addition I learned that when developing an evaluation you must look at the long term prognosis of your objective. If care is taken when long term planning, adjustments can be made to ensure the goals are still relevant.

My other long range planning involvement is in developing and maintaining our GSA web site. Because I am the marketing officer, I am in charge of content, administration, marketing, and planning of the web site. The web site is housed on Wordpress. In order to make long range planning effective and keep the association active and progressive I met the needs by cross marketing the web site. I linked the web site to Moodle, EdTech Twitter, RSS feeds, and widgets that allow sharing across various platforms. The long range planning I have committed to this site allows for changing of officers as students graduate and organizational success for the future. It is my hope that this site will continue to grow and modify with changing technology.

Conclusion

This paper was organized with the standards mapped to specific artifacts in mind. I have rationally justified each artifact required to meet the needs as a qualified educational technologist. Furthermore, this paper justifies my mastery of the educational technology program presented to me at Boise State University.

As I look back over the last 2 years of learning I consider myself fortunate and find myself already missing the interaction of an online class. I also know that in my future educational endeavors I will have a hard time in a traditional sense of schooling. I like the freedom of learning online, anyplace, anywhere and now mobile! When I began my educational journey I was floundering in my professional life and needed a new direction. I needed and wanted to use my brain in advanced ways. When I found the program I thought why not instead of why. This program afforded me the luxury of meeting and learning with my peers from all over the world. I learned about exciting new places as well as the students that live in those areas. I have made lasting friendships and encountered incredibly intelligent peers and mentors. I learned about technology that continues to evolve. Because of these experiences of which I will never forget, I have grown personally by leaps and bounds.

I have grown professionally because I was allowed to interact with technology and apply it to realistic situations. Granted sometimes that technology made me want to pull all my hair out but when the light bulb turned on I was on top of the world! I have applied what I have learned in not just the educational arena but also informal training of employees, family, and friends. For this experience will only help continue my educational journey. My confidence in using and exploring new technology to teach and train has soared. I look forward to applying my new technology skills in ways that can help other teachers or trainers as well as build an effective technology program.

References

Aronson, E. (2011). Jigsaw classroom. Retrieved January 18, 2011, from Social Psychology Network: http://www.jigsaw.org/

Boulmetis, J., & and Dutwin, P. (2005). The abc's of evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Clark, R. C., & Lyons, C. (2004). Graphics for learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2008). e-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Davidson-Shivers, G. V., & Rasmussen, K. L. (2006). Web-based learning design, implementation, and evaluation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Dawley, L. (2007). The tools for successful online teaching. Hershey, PA: Information Science Publishing.

Romano, D., & Brna, P. (2001). Presence and reflection in training: Support for learning to improve quality decision-making skills under time limitations. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 4(1), 265-277.

Smith, P. L., & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional design (3rd ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Taylor, G. R., & Mackenney, L. (2008). Improving human learning in the classroom: Theories and teaching practices. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Education.